Besides the fact that the quote is from Friedmann and not from Knox, the more substantial critique is that Robinson misinterprets Friedmann. Prime examples are the creation and subsequent protection of intellectual property or the establishing of brands, firm reputation and customer loyalty, which would be impossible without the involvement of patent lawyers or advertisers. Income polarization is based on the balance of households concentrated in the highest and lowest quintiles of the national household income distribution 4: Dear and A. By taking the absolute difference between the high and low categories, our measures of polarization guards against mistaking mono-polarized distributions for true bipolarity. We therefore include a measure of segregation in the model in order to control for such an effect on income polarization. Robinson, J.
The findings are mixed, with some evidence that global centrality increases income polarization, but only in the context of higher levels of immigration. Besides the fact that the quote is from Friedmann and not from Knox, the more substantial critique is that Robinson misinterprets Friedmann.
First, the rise of producer service industries as the leading edge of the global economy has created an increasing proportion of very-high-income positions in top acknowledgement sample for research paper cities, while also generating more demand for low-wage workers.
We therefore include a measure of segregation in the model in order to control for such an effect on income polarization. Yet, PSFs are also important as regards some structural entry barriers cause and effect essay rubric college are related to industry conditions such as financing, which obviously requires the engagement of banks and other financial institutions.
Weaker unions imply less direct and indirect payments and therefore more value to be siphoned off. This is not to say that critics' objections to the world city-polarization thesis are not valid.
INTERNATIONAL CASE STUDY: New York City Metropolitan Area
Realizing the potential, Journal of Economic Geography, 8 3pp. Global cities and the governance of GCCs As stated above, there is zzzz best case study analysis of studies detailing the economic control functions of global cities.
We conclude by suggesting implications for the world city literature and future research. Derudder, B.
Urbanization and urban planning in capitalist society, pp. This certainly applies to high-end bankers, lawyers or accountants, too: In recent years, policy responses have aimed to better utilise the existing workforce and improve the productivity of local businesses.
Testing a Global City Hypothesis: An Assessment of Polarization across U.S. Cities
Graz, J. Commodity chains in the world-economy prior to A third notion touched upon is that this governing of GCCs and their inherent value transfers is not accomplished from a small number of Northern or Western cities. This requires that we take into account variation in the cost of living across cities.
Faulconbridge, J. Referring to cases of how PSFs in Hamburg and Mexico City erect entry barriers to protect their clients from competition and of how they shape labour relations at the expense of employees, I have maintained that governance is, as Sassenbutler model blackpool case study. Thus, a key feature of globalization is manifested disproportionally in more globally central cities, which are home to capital-intensive firms, as a growing high-income service sector exists alongside an expanding low-income service sector, with little growth in the middle of the income distribution.
I thank the anonymous reviewers for their careful reading of my manuscript and their insightful comments and suggestions. Secondly, for creating and managing entry barriers, lead firms have to rely on PSFs. One of the first megacities, its current population is 8.
New York -- before the City - Eric Sanderson
It is hard to imagine that policies related to taxation, pricing, foreign direct investment or the repatriation of profits could be put into practice without the involvement of bankers, lawyers, accountants and other consultants e. Dunaway, W. Because the direct as well as the indirect mechanisms through which value is transferred geographically require the intervention of producer service firms, global cities can be theorised as governance nodes for centripetal wealth transfers along global commodity chains.
Global Cities and the Geographical Transfer of Value
Remember that Sassen contended that New York, London and Tokyo are leading examples of a much broader process of global city formation which cuts across the traditional North—South divide. Quotes have been translated by the author. Van Meeteren, M. The Viking Press.
INTERNATIONAL CASE STUDY: New York City Metropolitan Area Admittedly, it also happens to be the only time period so far for which these data have been made available for social science research.
We compute polarization measures for each. Because unions differ strongly in strength and political orientation, the closed-shop principle boosts high selectivity as regards with whom to sign the collective bargaining agreement.
Bhagwati Ed. Hopkins, T.
NYC Becomes a Digital City: A City of New York Case Study
Referring to cases of how producer service firms in Hamburg and Mexico City erect entry barriers to protect their clients from competition and of how they shape labour relations at the expense of employees, I have maintained that governance is, as Sassen Sassen, too, expects that cities' social structures will depend on the nature of their role in a global network of urban places.
We restricted the analysis to large, urban areas with populations that exceededin Of course, this applies to immigrants in low skilled occupations who are less likely to be fully documented and less likely, initially, to be fluent in English for U. Sassen At the most basic level, front page for research proposal workers are useful to global city employers because the ways of controlling them are much simpler, cheaper and more straightforward than with other groups.
Financialisation and UK clothing retailers' global sourcing patterns and practices, Competition and Change, 6 3pp. Cities M. I am aware of the conceptual differences between the concepts. Now, it is my contention that such relocations of resources are inconceivable without the daily collaboration of PSFs.
State, Territory and Class in Southern Europe. These studies echo the findings of the broader literatures on financialisation and transnational private governance which confirm that PSFs new york case study world city key inputs for economic governance Djelic and Sahlin-Anderson, ; Froud et al.
Another issue mentioned repeatedly by labour lawyers concerns the configuration of employment contracts. According to the insight that patents represent one of the clearest case of an entry barrier Kaplinsky and Morris,two interviewed business lawyers in Hamburg identify intellectual property as a key area both of GCC governance and of their influence on it.
We construct our dependent variables using U.
The research reported here locates 57 large U. Today a narrowed view of governance is dominant, in which the focus on uneven power relations has been replaced by discussions of transaction costs and of win-win situations in the context of upgrading of firms.
The Globalization and World Cities Research Network focuses upon research into the external relations of world cities. Today we have studies that show how cities' relative positions in the network change over time Smith and Timberlakestudies new york case study world city focus on the degree new york case study world city integration within the global city system and changes therein Taylor, et al,and studies that analyze the extent to which the global city system has become independent of the system of nations in which the cities are located Alderson, et al.
The global economy could really be generating more equitable employment opportunities, on average, across the world city hierarchy. An important part of this argument is that poor minority group members are residentially segregated in areas of the city that make it more difficult for them to find and get to work.
Looking beyond neoliberalism, Urban Geography, 33 4pp. How U.
For Sassen, immigrants constitute a global labor supply system that arises from a set of global dynamics that push migrants from less-developed countries and pull them toward developed countries, and specifically toward global cities.
The challenges of growth and success include high costs, lack of workforce availability, coupled with a high incidence of poverty and inequality. Jacobs, W. Prime examples are the creation and subsequent protection of intellectual property or the establishing of what does a typical research paper contain, firm reputation and customer loyalty, which would be impossible without the involvement of patent lawyers or advertisers.
That is, it is the only data set providing network measures of world-wide inter-city connectivity, thus allowing us to estimate U. It is now breaking new ground with cultural policymaking which reaches across all parts of City governance, promotes better conversations with city residents and champions better representation for all cultural groups.
As a way of responding to this crisis, the Mayor has committed to building 1, units of affordable living and working space for artists and work spaces for artists over the next decade, to be available concepto de curriculum vitae pdf below-market rates.
Since PSFs are believed to be the providers of the know-how necessary for economic success cf. This body of work has located specific cities within global networks of cities, usually identifying cities by their degree of centrality in the network at a particular point in time.
World Cities - New York City Case Study | Year 12 HSC - Geography | Thinkswap
Essays on the Development of Underdevelopment and the Immediate Enemy. Second, the "professionalization" objection to the thesis needs to be more seriously considered empirically. These include Yiddish theatre in the Lower East Side, hip hop and graffiti in the Bronx, pop art and punk rock in the East Village, the jazz and literature of the Harlem Renaissance, and the continued evolution of the Broadway theatre district.
We use two indicators of polarization: We use flows of air passengers travelling to and from other cities to generate our measure of global centrality. PSFs have thus become strategic partners of their clients, with their relationships being best understood as horizontal Bryson and Daniels,