The selection of publications was carried out by means of careful reading of abstracts and ensuing text reading, in order to evaluate the relationship with the theme to be researched. Knowing that the lesions were similar to severe sun burns, for which the suggested protection was to cover the body with something black, he proposed that occupationally exposed individuals utilized red gloves or covered their hands and faces with red paint. Recent history of the shielding of medical x-ray imaging facilities. Considering the troubles associated with wearing the RPGs, new materials have been developed to make such gear lighter so as to reduce the professionals fatigue and back pain 35 and the discomfort in wearing them, thus contributing to a reduction in the resistance to the use of RPGs. Radiation protection culture RPC is a combination of knowledge, beliefs and practices related to radiation safety. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. Regarding the safe use of ionizing radiation in the medical field and nuclear industry, International Radiation Protection Association IRPA first established the concept of radiation protection culture RPC in following the proposal of the French Society for Radiation Protection. In another study developed by Hopper 17the utilization of bismuth eye shields reduced the radiation in the crystalline by
Radiation also is present nuclear medicine, for the investigation of the physiology of organs and systems of the human body. Staff radiation doses to the lower extremities in interventional radiology.
Most of the studies are focused on the crystalline, the thyroid and the gonads, which are highly radiosensitive. Regarding the safe use of ionizing radiation in the medical field and nuclear industry, International Radiation Protection Association IRPA first established the concept of radiation protection culture RPC in following the proposal of the French Society for Radiation Protection.
Correspondence to: Surgeon's radiation exposure during percutaneous vertebroplasty. Others recognize that culture is a combination of attitudes and regulations and claim that RPC is either present or absent within a Radiology Department.
Other sources such as thesis, monographs and books contributed with reports on the biological effects associated with radiation, forms of protection, and the practical results of the utilization of RPGs that comprised the document sources in the analysis process.
Concept development in nursing: Simulations were performed with 55, 75, 95 and kV, as they comprehend the range of voltages normally utilized in conventional radiography. Another significant contribution demonstrated in the present review refers to the implementation of measures for radiological protection.
The ionizing radiation is an electromagnetic wave that interacts with matter transferring energy to the electrons of its atoms. As regards professionals, the item 4.
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All rights reserved. Depending on the radiosensitivity, the ionizing radiation may directly affect the cells ionization or indirectly action of free radicalswith damages to the DNA strands, alteration of their genetic material, as well alteration of their proteins, enzymes, and modification of permeability of the cells' membrane and activation of the oncogenes.
The establishment of a RPC enables the reduction of the radiation dose, enhances radiation risk awareness, minimizes unsafe practices, and improves the quality of a radiation protection program.
The term culture describes the combination of attitudes, beliefs, practices and rules among the professionals, staff and patients regarding to radiation protection. The integrative review is defined as that in which previously published researches are synthesized and generate conclusion on a theme of interest 7.
However, few studies approach the radiation dose to the lower extremities of the members of the medical team. As regards fluoroscopy, item 4.
The challenge is to improve rather than to build a RPC. One of them is the deterministic effect, caused by the high radiation dose that leads the cell to a partial or total loss of its biological function, i. Orbital, thyroid, and breast superficial radiation shielding for patients undergoing diagnostic CT. However, it is necessary that occupationally exposed individuals wear RPGs during interventional procedures, as well as in procedures in which the individual is directly exposed to the primary or secondary beam.
In the search in the English language, the utilized descriptors were the following: Because of the radiobiological effects, such as radiogenic cataracts, sterility, cellular death and genetic mutations that may occur with the utilization of ionizing radiation, any gains related to attenuation of radiation is significant, and for such reason the utilization of RPGs is indispensable.
Taking into account that the RPG is not always in perfect conditions, it is necessary to perform some tests, as defined on item 4.