Chapter 2 Sample

Chapter 2 methodology research paper sample.

Where they differ is the level at which performance must be defined. The method is particularly useful in situations in which empirical means are not suitable and research results rely heavily on the subjective opinions of experts. The goal was to address the following considerations: Further, the guide assists in determining how to develop a performance specification to allocate risk among the proj- ect participants considering the current state of the practice. Sage Publication. Conclusion This chapter has outlined and justified the research methodology implemented in this dissertation and its validity.

Contents

Chapter 2 Sample | Qualitative Research | Quantitative Research

All how to cite someones research paper the participants were approached via email, and the questionnaires were distributed via email, then completed by the participant and returned via email again. To bol- ster this technique, the team applied the Delphi method. The major results and findings of this dissertation are discussed in the following chapter.

Literature Review To establish the rationale for using performance specifica- tions, the team first performed a literature review to docu- ment any prior efforts to identify the actual or potential value received through the use of performance-based, incentive- based, and performance warranty contracts and specifica- tions in the highway construction industry.

The questionnaire for the employees consists of the same number of questions, and again combines open and closed questions. Context drives how performance specifications are defined within the construction industry. Other methods Upon embarking on this research, the author initially considered focus groups and participant observation as possible research methods, due to the chapter 2 methodology research paper sample elements contained in this research.

Ethical Considerations There were several types of ethical issues, which the researcher had to take into consideration for this project.

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As a complementary method, the writer conducted interviews with an equal number of representatives of each group. The decision to use method or performance specifications is often a matter of degree how much and at what level.

More importantly, these questions were designed to address the core competencies, established in the previous chapter to assess business performance by art performance — leadership, communication, team-building, emotion management, and creativity.

Both approaches may be appropriate for specific elements within a project. Although the benefits may not directly translate to the value added or lost by applying performance specifications to a highway construction project, they do provide general insight chapter 2 methodology research paper sample the advantages of using performance chapter 2 methodology research paper sample strategies.

Chapter 2 Sample

Finally, all the information collected in the course of this dissertation has been used only for the purposes of the study, and will be kept confidential. Arnold Kirby, M. With regard to teachers, workers and employees, the researcher allow the questionnaires to be taken home for further study and evaluation by the respondents.

All of the participants both managers and employees were informed in advance about the purposes of this project, and gave their informed consent to participate in writing.

Depart- ment of Defense DoD describes a performance specification as one that states requirements in terms of the required results and the criteria for verifying compliance, without specifically stating how the results are to be achieved. The Delphi analysis required the team to 1 assemble the Delphi dissertation research design types group; 2 develop and administer survey questions; 3 receive and process the survey responses; 4 conduct a structured workshop to present, discuss, and clarify the sur- vey results; 5 conduct a second survey round assessment; 6 summarize the outcomes of the Round 2 assessment, and 7 conduct a Round 3 assessment and summarize results.

It is designed to gather information or conditions existing at a particular period of time. Interpretive and Critical Approaches. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed below. The team carefully reviewed the collected literature, roses description creative writing ing existing performance specifications through the criteria established in the specification development framework to identify viable performance parameters and measurement strategies.

Determining the appropriate balance between prescriptive and performance-oriented requirements is one of the main objectives of the eight-step specification development pro- cess illustrated Figure 2. Bearing in mind the objectives of rapid renewal i.

Related Introduction The purpose of this chapter is to explain in detail the research methods and the methodology implemented for this study. The entire process of developing 18 a performance specification is in a sense a risk management exercise designed to identify, allocate, and mitigate the risks associated with implementing a performance specification.

  1. What are the risks associated with Implementing performance Specifications?
  2. This approach was overruled however, because it does not reflect the interactive nature of the model being studied in which managers and business leaders play crucial role.

Krathwohl, D. Because of the nature of the research, the author opted for the qualitative strategy, bound by interpretivist approach.

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Qualitative Research: At first the writer contacted via the phone relevant people from each company, to make them acquainted with the purposes of the research and to ask for permission to conduct the chapter 2 methodology research paper sample with representatives from their companies.

Washington, DC: Part I contained the profile information on the respondents gender, age, monthly income, capacity to save and consume. The chapter will explain first of all the choice of research approach, then the research design, as well chapter 2 methodology research paper sample the advantages and disadvantages of the research tools chosen.

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Ten agencies returned questionnaires or sent e-mail responses indicating interest in participating in a SHRP 2 R07 demonstra- tion project. Of course the results from the interviews are not generalizable, because of the subjectivity of data obtained. Thus, the imple- mentation guidelines see the executive guide, Chapter 5 present a two-part decision process for evaluating when to use or not to use performance specifications.

However, because of time constraints and cost, these research methods were not opted for.

That comparison would allow consideration of how project delivery approaches could affect the actual or potential value received from implementing performance specifications. Additional long-term data collection will be needed to make valid quantitative risk assessments.

Frequency and Percentage distribution was used to determine the frequencies of the respondent responses using the formula: The questionnaire for the managers from the companies consisted of twenty open questions, related to the business performance of their employees. Data Collection Most of the communication with the participants took place via email.

He also observes that one characteristics of interpretivism is curriculum vitae actual these facts are abstract in nature, and governed by a variety of factors which are non-tangible and difficult to measure. Heinnemann Potter, S.

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Apart from the demographic questions, the rest of the questions are organised into groups, addressing the objectives through the prism of the employees, and addressing individual narratives on important concepts such as creativity, improvisation, and team-building within the organisation. Then it was screened for per- ceived applicability to subsequent specification development efforts on the basis of containing or suggesting the following: Research Design This research makes use of a qualitative research strategy in the sense that there will be no numeric data or quantitative data was produced Bell, ; Sarantakos, ; Silverman, Sources of Data The primary sources of data for this study is through conventional forms in creative writing and conducting of questionnaire and interviews from the future target market and depositors such as the NEU students and alumni, workers, employees and staff.

Successful implementation of performance specifications will likely require a departure from traditional project development and delivery processes. Teachers investigate their property development case study An introduction to action research across the professions. Who Is affected by performance Specifications and how are they affected?

instrumentation, administration of instruments, and the procedure of

Bell, J. On the basis of the literature review and consultation with subject matter experts, the team generated a list of viable delivery schemes for performance specifications.

Appendix E provides a detailed summary of the design and results of this data collection effort. It is designed to gather information or conditions existing at a particular period of time.

To exact a more accurate result, a. The instrument was designed in a simple and clear manner. The method is particularly useful in situations in which empirical means are not suitable and research results rely heavily on the subjective opinions of experts.

The complete performance specification development pro- cess is presented in the specification writers guide, Chapter 2.

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The questionnaires were distributed and completed in the course of four weeks. Because of the small number of respondents and the diverse design and answer sets of the questions, and because of the qualitative research approach of the study, the author did not use any of the statistical software available such as SPSS or STRATA.

Macmillan Silverman, D. From those responses, the team identified the following projects as viable candidates for demonstrations: Foundations of Qualitative Research: Also, the participants were selected on the basis of specific criteria, such as company organisationwhere a particular type of model has been implemented.

The questionnaire were referred to her adviser for connection or modification. Also, the research makes use of triangulation because triangulation gives the opportunity to approach the research objectives from different viewpoints Cohen and Manion, ; Altrichter et. This chapter presents the research method used, the respondents, the instrumentation, administration of instruments, and the procedure of analysis.

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The researcher tap the assistance of the teachers in explaining to the students the entire process from distribution and collection of the 41 questionnaires. The Delphi method is an adaptation of the survey method and is used to obtain the judgment of a panel of experts on a complex issue or topic.

The results of the revision served as the basis for its improvement and refinement said instruments were assessed in terms of its construction, organization, structure and purpose.

A qualitative research strategy is particularly applicable for the purposes of this research, where the connection between several different variables had to be established through interpretation. Page 18 Share Suggested Citation: Quantitative free essay on affordable care act is a formal, objective, systematic process in which numerical data are used to obtain information about free essay on affordable care act world.

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Recognizing that project conditions could also affect the value received from performance specifications, the compar- ative framework considered the impact of different project characteristics such as the following: Taken as a whole, the pyramid depicted in the figure is intended to represent the entirety of knowledge and expe rience related to pavement design and construction.

Cultural, organiza- tional, and legal issues can also affect the successful imple- mentation of performance specifications. The research study undertaken for the R07 project adopted a more pragmatic approach that is amenable to, but not reliant on, the use of such models dissertation research design types define perfor- mance needs.

Another weakness of the methodology was related to the fact that the researcher used interpetivist approach, which was determined by the nature and the objectives of the research. Alter natively, agencies may develop additional performance specifications for needs not addressed by the current set of guide specifications.

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  • Because of the small number of respondents and the diverse design and answer sets of the questions, and because of the qualitative research approach of the study, the author did not use any of the statistical software available such as SPSS or STRATA.

Research Methods For the purposes of this research, the writer has decided to use a combination of two of the classic social sciences research tools — questionnaires and interviews Winchester, ; Sarantakos, ; Silverman, ; Greenfield,